Thursday, 2 April 2009

Adding a Static Address to the DHCP Server

I've got a Lexmark X9575 all-in-one printer. Up to now, it was connected to the Mac via USB. I wanted to reconfigure it to connect it to the network instead so that I can use it with other computers. But I wanted to do so in such a way that it would get its network configuration via DHCP while keeping a fixed address and be resolvable via DNS.

The first thing I did was to remove the printer setup from the Mac (no, you can't change the configuration, you have to un-install and re-install, thank you Lexmark!). Then I connected the printer to the network switch with a standard RJ45 cable. It requested a DHCP lease form the server immediately and the DNS entries got updated. That was a good start. However, the IP address was part of the dynamic range and therefore unpredictable and the name of the printer was hard-coded to the very non-intuitive ET0020002C5B7A. I wanted something more memorable like lexmark-printer.

To force a fixed IP address is quite simple, as explained in this DHCP mini-howto. I just added the following to the /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf file:

host lexmark-printer {
 hardware ethernet 00:20:00:2c:5b:7a;
 fixed-address 192.168.1.250;
}

Restarted the DHCP server:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart

And it didn't work, for two reasons:

  • The DHCP server already had a lease assigned so wasn't going to renew it;
  • The printer already has an IP address configured so wasn't going to renew it either.

To solve the first problem, I needed to force the expiry of the lease on the DHCP server. The ISC DHCP server stores leases between restarts in a file called /var/lib/dhcp3/dhcpd.leases. So revoking the lease can be done by updating that file, removing the entry for the given lease and restarting the DHCP server.

The second problem was of the same ilk: go to the printer's TCP/IP configuration, set DHCP to no, save the settings, go back into them, set DHCP back to yes and that forced the printer to request a new lease.

That gave me a static address for the printer while still keeping it managed by DHCP. However, in such a case, the DHCP server doesn't update the DNS database. This has to be done manually, by adding the following in the forward lookup file:

lexmark-printer.home.   IN A    192.168.1.250

And this in the reverse lookup file:

250.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa. IN PTR  lexmark-printer.home.

Then of course, a restart of the DNS server is required:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/bind9 restart

2 comments:

Anonymous said...

Thank you for your report. Especially for using key words I was searching for (like revoke ;).

For the client side: Would it not be enough switching off + on your printserver? Why don't you set them back to dhcp, so you can still watch your daemon.log and see if they are still updating their IP?

Addressing the dhcp3 upstream, I suggest to allow units for the TTL of leases.

default-lease-time 1800; #30 m
max-lease-time 3600; #1 h

makes sense (longer times are less human readable). You should never extend max-lease-time to more than 8 hrs, so you have the night to change your IP assignments...

Bruno said...

I couldn't switch off and on the print server on the client side because we're talking about a networked Lexmark printer that doesn't give me access to the processes it runs. In practice, switching DHCP off and on at the printer was the quickest way to get it to re-request a lease.